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As Israel presses toward an invasion of the southern Gaza city of Rafah, where 1.4 million displaced Palestinians are seeking shelter, the Israeli military says it plans to direct a "significant" number of them toward zones in the center of the Strip. Referring to the areas as "humanitarian islands," Israel's military did not provide details on how or when civilians would be moved. Any Israeli invasion of Rafah could trigger an even larger humanitarian catastrophe in the densely crowded area, aid groups have warned for weeks. An invasion will complicate efforts to deliver humanitarian supplies, as Gazans continue to suffer from disease and face starvation.

South Africa filed an urgent request with the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for additional provisional measures to the court's January and February rulings in the country's case against Israel, charging that Israel is carrying out genocide in the Gaza Strip. South Africa said the request is necessitated by changes to the situation in Gaza that have arisen since it originally filed the case with the ICJ, such as imminent risk of famine, particularly in north Gaza. South Africa said the request is meant "to ensure the safety and security of 2.3 million Palestinians in Gaza" and prevent Israel from "continuing egregious breaches" of the measures the ICJ handed down in January.

statement released by the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on behalf of United Nations rights experts warns countries against the transfer of war material to Israel, as such transfers could constitute violations international humanitarian law if weapons are used contrary to the Geneva Conventions. Invoking the recent Word Court orders concerning Israel's siege and bombardment of Gaza, the statement asserts that "states must accordingly refrain from transferring any weapon or ammunition—or parts for them—if it is expected, given the facts and past patterns of behaviour, that they would be used to violate international law."

report from the Gaza Health Impact Projections Working Group estimates that, even in the best-case scenario of an immediate permanent ceasefire, there will be more than 6,500 excess deaths in Gaza over the next six months due to the catastrophic food, shelter, sanitation and healthcare situation in the Strip. If the status quo of ongoing bombardment continues, projections rise to more than 74,000 deaths. Reports are starting to emerge of children dying of hunger.

UNRWA, the UN agency for Palestinian refugees, was plunged into crisis when Israel accused 12 of its Gaza employees of involvement in Hamas' Oct. 7 attack on Israel. In response to Israel's claims, the US, UK, Germany, and other top donor countries suspended funding to UNRWA. In a statement, some two dozen aid organizations said they are "deeply concerned and outraged" by the suspension of funding, as some 2.3 million Gazans face "starvation, looming famine and an outbreak of disease under Israel's continued indiscriminate bombardment and deliberate deprivation of aid." 

The genocide case brought against Israel at the International Court of Justice charges that "Israel has damaged and destroyed numerous centres of Palestinian learning and culture" in the Gaza Strip, including schools, libraries, religious sites and places of historical importance. The United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) reports that in the two-and-a-half months of bombardment, more than 200 schools have been damaged—around 40% of the total number in the Strip, about 40 of them seriously. UNESCO is also attempting to monitor damage to heritage sites using satellite data and sources on the ground. The agency has especially expressed concern over the ruins of fourth-century Saint Hilarion Monastery, which has been placed under "provisional enhanced protection." The oldest mosque in Gaza, the Omari Mosque, has been severely damaged in Israeli bombardment.

After more than 100 days of war and Israeli siege, every single person in Gaza is hungry, and a quarter of the population—or around 500,000 people—is starving, UN experts warned. The aid response is falling short of what is needed to prevent a deadly combination of hunger, malnutrition, and disease, four UN agencies said, calling for a "fundamental step change in the flow of humanitarian aid into Gaza." Without it, deaths from starvation and disease could soon surpass the already staggering toll from bombardment and combat, which has reached nearly 25,000 people, according to health authorities in Gaza.